Monday, January 26, 2015

Male Social Roles

Organized patterns of relationships through interaction with one another is foundational to societies.   Common interest, beliefs, and these organized patterns of group behavior often produce a community of enduring and cooperative activities.  Standards of living and conduct are part of the factors that help us understand the environment that our ancestors lived within and survived.

The following figure attempts to present the male social structure of pre-industrialized England.  For those of us with Welsh ancestry, the Act of Union [1536] brought two different social groups [Welsh and English] into one environment. This "Union" created many social changes among those of Welsh descent.


The English society was structured around social classes that kept individuals within accepted groups.  In broad terms, these are outline above.  The existing educational structure for the "male child" beginning in "Infancy" to the start of "Adult Life" is shown.  Accepted roles for each social group is shown along the bottom.  From "farm/field" [rural existences], to the royal court of England [high society], the expected social positions are shown.  Our Welsh ancestors were to fit within their assigned male social roles.

Sunday, January 4, 2015

Mother Tongue(s)

The words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a considerable group of people is one definition of language.  From the French langue = tongue, and the Latin lingua =  tongue, the word is derived.  Over time, the manner of verbal expression and pronouncing words become fixed among ethic groups producing a distinct language.  The Celtic tongues have their roots as follows:


For the genealogist, understanding these roots helps explain the variety of spellings and pronunciation which often are encountered.  This is especially true when the English (Balto-Slavo-Germanic roots)
crosses the Welsh (Proto-Celtic).  Here, the phonetics (pronouncing words) produce a confusing group of sounds.  For me, the surname JONES is an example.

There is no "J" in the Welsh alphabet.  Their sound "Si" is the closest match.  In the Latin, the letter "I" represents the the sound for "J".  Norman-French would use "Je" which was often written "Ie".   The early record keepers were priest of the Church writing all kinds of word combinations from these groups of mixed languages.  The earliest English records were written in French.  The Church records were written in Latin.  The Welsh language was mixed among the groups.  What a deal!  Sorting through the records of the day can be quite a challenge for the genealogist.
 




The derivation of the surname JONES is shown above.  It was the transliteration of Welsh into Anglo-Saxon (English) that "phonetically" produced this surname.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

A Good Map

Traveling along the family tree, it often becomes necessary to understand the geography of the area of interest.  A good map is needed to help explore the names, places, and land surrounding this branch of the tree.  For my JONES family this often lead to England, and finally Wales.  The following is a copy of the front of my map.  It came in handy during those dark and stormy nights when you needed to find your way along the branches.


 The map is titled as a sight-seeing map of England and Wales.  It was published by Geographers' A-Z Map Co. Ltd.  It opens to a very large map with index and chronology included.  Starting in the Bronze Age, thru Norman, to modern times, it list the geographic locations of many places important to each period of history.  [Once opened, it could be a bear to fold back up.]  Needless to say, it provided a source of historic and geographic information.  A good map indeed for those who's family tree leads this direction.



Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Welsh Border Country

East meets west, and West meets east...along a border which for many generations was an ill defined frontier between the Welsh...the Marcher Lords...and the English Monarchy.  On this border is located many of my family stories.  As early as Wat's Dyke, my family tree had established its identity between this often used location to test ones stubborn nature, and willingness to survive.


Modern day accounts of this area provide some help in understanding the history and location of many geographic names.  A fellow "Jones" provided the following text.  First published 1938, it provides illustrations and sketches of the land.


North to south it runs, giving one persons opinion of this landscape.  For many Americans of Welsh descent, Shropshire seems to play a key role.   Oswestry, Maelor Saesneg, and Wrexham were connecting points for my family.


Another text is titled: "In The March and Borderland of Wales".  First published in 1905, it gives the political, legal, and geographic concepts from the time of Edward I, in 1282.  It contains a wonderful group of illustrations giving a context not often found in modern day texts. 

Two helpful references to aide the genealogist they are. 

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Skipping Rocks

Understanding the historical context often helps the genealogist uncover a variety of factors associated with the family tree.  These factors may provide hints as to the direction ones tree climbing will take.
For those of Welsh descent, this context is frequently framed by war.


The book by Philip Warner outlines a span of some three thousand years.  From prehistoric times to the battle of Fishguard ( 22 Feb. 1797) the topic is organized by a major theme.  "The Battles against the Romans", "The Battles against the Normans", and "The Battles of the Civil War" are just a few of the chapter headings.  Ordnance Survey maps allow for battle site identification.

For me the most helpful was a list of Welsh at the battle of Agincourt. (Appendix 6, pp. 147 - 149)

It is like skipping rocks in a historical pond of Welsh history.  Come skip a few.

The book was published by Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1977, and again in 1997. 

Monday, October 20, 2014

The Welsh Tract

Early on, the Welsh had a number of folks involved in the settlement of this new land they generally called the colonies.  At times, a large number of individuals would travel together as a group of Welshmen.  Often this would be called a "Welsh Tract".   Such is the case of one group coming as "Cymric Quakers" to what was called "Pennsylvania".


An account of such a migration from Wales is recorded by the text called "Merion In The Welsh Tract".  The front sheet of my copy is shown above.  It includes sketches of the Townships of Haverford and Radnor.  It dates this migration to 1682.

The book by Thomas Allen Glenn was first published in 1896, and was reprinted by the Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, in 1970.  Clearfield Company, Inc. reprinted the text again in 1992.

For my own genealogical tree climbing it was very helpful in understanding this period in my own JONES family tree.  A Dr. Edward Jones was a leading individual among the first of this Quarker group. 

A dedication in the book states:

       "To The Memory of The First Welsh Planters In The Province of Pennsylvania Is Dedicated
        This Humble Record Of Their Lives, Their Lineage And The Country Which They Settled".

For those who have an interest in this early settlement group, this reference is a significant contribution to "The Welsh Tract".

Friday, October 10, 2014

The Cymry of '76

An address given by Alexander Jones in 1855 is recorded in a book about the Welsh descendents who were involved in the American Revolution.  The address was delivered in the Welsh Congregational Church which stood on Eleventh Street, New York.  At the request of the St. David's Benevolent Society it was given on the eve of St. David's day, February 28, 1855.  The following is a copy of the title page:


The material was reprinted by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD in 1968.  It was then reprinted in 1989 by the Clearfield Co., Baltimore, MD. 

The book contains a large number of "Appendix" discussing the Welsh language, history, and chronology.  It also contains the address of the Rev. David Jones at the Fort of Ticonderoga when the enemy were hourly expected in 1776.

I suspect the book is not widely known, so I put the reference for those who might be interested.  It is a fun reference to peruse.